# Expressions

Solidity resembles the C family of languages. Expressions can use the following operators.

## Arithmetic operators

The binary operators `-`, `+`, `*`, `/`, `%`, and `**` are supported, and also in the assignment form `-=`, `+=`, `*=`, `/=`, and `%=`. There is a unary operator `-`.

```uint32 fahrenheit = celsius * 9 / 5 + 32;
```

Parentheses can be used too, of course:

```uint32 celsius = (fahrenheit - 32) * 5 / 9;
```

Operators can also come in the assignment form.

```balance += 10;
```

The exponation (or power) can be used to multiply a number N times by itself, i.e. x y. This can only be done for unsigned types.

```uint64 thousand = 1000;
uint64 billion = thousand ** 3;
```

Overflow checking is limited to types of 64 bits and smaller, if the –math-overflow command line argument is specified. No overflow checking is generated in unchecked blocks, like so:

```contract foo {
function f(int64 n) public {
unchecked {
int64 j = n - 1;
}
}
}
```

Warning

Overflow checking for types larger than `int64` (e.g. `uint128`) is not implemented yet.

## Bitwise operators

The `|`, `&`, `^` are supported, as are the shift operators `<<` and `>>`. These are also available in the assignment form `|=`, `&=`, `^=`, `<<=`, and `>>=`. Lastly there is a unary operator `~` to invert all the bits in a value.

## Logical operators

The logical operators `||`, `&&`, and `!` are supported. The `||` and `&&` short-circuit. For example:

```bool foo = x > 0 || bar();
```

bar() will not be called if the left hand expression evaluates to true, i.e. x is greater than 0. If x is 0, then bar() will be called and the result of the `||` will be the return value of bar(). Similarly, the right hand expressions of `&&` will not be evaluated if the left hand expression evaluates to `false`; in this case, whatever ever the outcome of the right hand expression, the `&&` will result in `false`.

```bool foo = x > 0 && bar();
```

Now `bar()` will only be called if x is greater than 0. If x is 0 then the `&&` will result in false, irrespective of what bar() would return, so bar() is not called at all. The expression elides execution of the right hand side, which is also called short-circuit.

## Conditional operator

The ternary conditional operator `? :` is supported:

```uint64 abs = foo > 0 ? foo : -foo;
```

## Comparison operators

It is also possible to compare values. For, this the `>=`, `>`, `==`, `!=`, `<`, and `<=` is supported. This is useful for conditionals.

The result of a comparison operator can be assigned to a bool. For example:

```bool even = (value % 2) == 0;
```

It is not allowed to assign an integer to a bool; an explicit comparision is needed to turn it into a bool.

## Increment and Decrement operators

The post-increment and pre-increment operators are implemented like you would expect. So, `a++` evaluates to the value of `a` before incrementing, and `++a` evaluates to value of `a` after incrementing.

## this

The keyword `this` evaluates to the current contract. The type of this is the type of the current contract. It can be cast to `address` or `address payable` using a cast.

```contract kadowari {
function nomi() public {
kadowari c = this;
}
}
```

Function calls made via this are function calls through the external call mechanism; i.e. they have to serialize and deserialise the arguments and have the external call overhead. In addition, this only works with public functions.

```contract kadowari {
function nomi() public {
this.nokogiri(102);
}

function nokogiri(int a) public {
// ...
}
}
```

## type(..) operators

For integer values, the minimum and maximum values the types can hold are available using the `type(...).min` and `type(...).max` operators. For unsigned integers, `type(..).min` will always be 0.

```contract example {
int16 stored;

function func(int x) public {
if (x < type(int16).min || x > type(int16).max) {
revert("value will not fit");
}

stored = int16(x);
}
}
```

The EIP-165 interface value can be retrieved using the syntax `type(...).interfaceId`. This is only permitted on interfaces. The interfaceId is simply an bitwise XOR of all function selectors in the interface. This makes it possible to uniquely identify an interface at runtime, which can be used to write a supportsInterface() function as described in the EIP.

The contract code for a contract, i.e. the binary WebAssembly or BPF, can be retrieved using the `type(c).creationCode` and `type(c).runtimeCode` fields, as `bytes`. In Ethereum, the constructor code is in the `creationCode` WebAssembly and all the functions are in the `runtimeCode` WebAssembly or BPF. Parity Substrate has a single WebAssembly code for both, so both fields will evaluate to the same value.

```contract example {
function test() public {
bytes runtime = type(other).runtimeCode;
}
}

contract other {
bool foo;
}
```

Note

`type().creationCode` and `type().runtimeCode` are compile time constants.

It is not possible to access the code for the current contract. If this were possible, then the contract code would need to contain itself as a constant array, which would result in an contract of infinite size.

## Ether and time units

Any decimal numeric literal constant can have a unit denomination. For example `10 minutes` will evaluate to 600, i.e. the constant will be multiplied by the multiplier listed below. The following units are available:

 Unit Multiplier `seconds` 1 `minutes` 60 `hours` 3600 `days` 86400 `weeks` 604800 `wei` 1 `ether` 1_000_000_000_000_000_000

Note that `ether`, `wei` and the other Ethereum currency denominations are available when not compiling for Ethereum, but they will produce warnings.

## Casting

Solidity is very strict about the sign of operations, and whether an assignment can truncate a value. You can force the compiler to accept truncations or differences in sign by adding a cast.

Some examples:

```function abs(int bar) public returns (int64) {
if (bar > 0) {
return bar;
} else {
return -bar;
}
}
```

The compiler will say:

```implicit conversion would truncate from int256 to int64
```

Now you can work around this by adding a cast to the argument to return `return int64(bar);`, however it would be much nicer if the return value matched the argument. Instead, implement multiple overloaded abs() functions, so that there is an `abs()` for each type.

It is allowed to cast from a `bytes` type to `int` or `uint` (or vice versa), only if the length of the type is the same. This requires an explicit cast.

```bytes4 selector = "ABCD";
uint32 selector_as_uint = uint32(selector);
```

If the length also needs to change, then another cast is needed to adjust the length. Truncation and extension is different for integers and bytes types. Integers pad zeros on the left when extending, and truncate on the right. bytes pad on right when extending, and truncate on the left. For example:

```bytes4 start = "ABCD";
uint64 start1 = uint64(uint4(start));
// first cast to int, then extend as int: start1 = 0x41424344
uint64 start2 = uint64(bytes8(start));
// first extend as bytes, then cast to int: start2 = 0x4142434400000000
```

A similar example for truncation:

```uint64 start = 0xdead_cafe;
bytes4 start1 = bytes4(uint32(start));
// first truncate as int, then cast: start1 = hex"cafe"
bytes4 start2 = bytes4(bytes8(start));
// first cast, then truncate as bytes: start2 = hex"dead"
```

Since `byte` is array of one byte, a conversion from `byte` to `uint8` requires a cast.