Solang works with Parity Substrate 2.0 or later. This target is the most mature and has received the most testing so far.
The Parity Substrate has the following differences to Ethereum Solidity:
- The address type is 32 bytes, not 20 bytes. This is what Substrate calls an “account”
- An address literal has to be specified using the
- ABI encoding and decoding is done using the SCALE encoding
- Multiple constructors are allowed, and can be overloaded
- There is no
ecrecover()builtin function, or any other function to recover or verify cryptographic signatures at runtime
- Only functions called via rpc may return values; when calling a function in a transaction, the return values cannot be accessed
- An assert(), require(), or revert() executes the wasm unreachable instruction. The reason code is lost
There is an solidity example which can be found in the examples directory. Write this to flipper.sol and run:
solang --target substrate flipper.sol
Now you should have a file called
flipper.contract. The file contains both the ABI and contract wasm.
It can be used directly in the
Polkadot UI, as if the contract was written in ink!.
The Solana target requires Solana 1.6.9 or later. This target is in the early stages right now, however it is under active development. All data types are supported, but the builtin functions, and constructor calls have not been implemented yet. This is how to build your Solidity for Solana:
solang --target solana flipper.sol -v
This will produce two files called flipper.abi and bundle.so. The first is an ethereum style abi file and the latter being the ELF BPF shared object which can be deployed on Solana. For each contract, an abi file will be created; a single bundle.so is created which contains the code all the contracts provided on the command line.
The contract storage model in Solana is different from Ethereum; it is consists of a contigious piece of memory, which can be
accessed directly from the smart contract. This means that there are no storage slots, and that a mapping must be implemented
using a simple hashmap. The same hashmap is used for fixed-length arrays which are a larger than 1kb. So, if you declare an
contract storage array of
int, then this is implemented using a hashmap.
Solana has execution model which allows one program to interact with multiple accounts. Those accounts can be used for different purposes. In Solang’s case, each time the contract is executed, it needs two accounts. One account is the program, which contains the compiled BPF program. The other account contains the contract storage variables, and also the return variables for the last invocation.
The output of the compiler will tell you how large the second account needs to be. For the flipper.sol example, the output contains “info: contract flipper uses at least 17 bytes account data”. This means the second account should be 17 bytes plus space for the return data, and any dynamic storage. If the account is too small, the transaction will fail with the error account data too small for instruction.
Before any function on a smart contract can be used, the constructor must be first be called. This ensures that the constructor as declared in the solidity code is executed, and that the contract storage account is correctly initialized. To call the constructor, abi encode (using ethereum abi encoding) the constructor arguments, and pass in two accounts to the call, the 2nd being the contract storage account.
Once that is done, any function on the contract can be called. To do that, abi encode the function call, pass this as input, and provide the two accounts on the call, plus any accounts that may be called. The return data may be read from the account data if the call succeeds.
There is an example of this written in node.
Hyperledger Burrow (ewasm)¶
The ewasm specification is not finalized yet. There is no create2 or chainid call, and the keccak256 precompile contract has not been finalized yet.
In Burrow, Solang is used transparently by the
burrow deploy tool if it is given the
When building and deploying a Solidity contract, rather than running the
solc compiler, it will run
solang compiler and deploy it as a wasm contract.
This is documented in the burrow documentation.
ewasm has been tested with Hyperledger Burrow. Please use the latest master version of burrow, as ewasm support is still maturing in Burrow.
Some language features have not been fully implemented yet on ewasm:
- Contract storage variables types
bytesand function types are not implemented
This is merely a proof-of-concept target, and has seen very little testing. Unless anyone is interested in maintaining this target, it is likely to be removed. On sawtooth, many Solidity concepts are impossible to implement:
- Return values from contract calls
- Calling other contracts
- Value transfers
- Instantiating contracts
When using Solang on Sawtooth Sabre, the constructor and function calls must be encoded with Ethereum ABI encoding. This can be done in different ways. In this guide we use ethabi. This can be installed using cargo:
cargo install ethabi-cli
In order to abi encode the calls, we need the abi for the contract. Let’s compile flipper.sol for Sabre:
solang --target sabre --verbose flipper.sol
We now have a file
flipper.abi. To deploy this, we need to create the constructor
ABI encoding. Unfortunately ethabi already falls short here; we cannot encode constructor calls using the cli
tools. However we can work round this by specify the constructor arguments explicitly. Note that if the
constructor does not take any arguments, then the constructor data should be empty (0 bytes). So, since the
constructor in flipper.sol takes a single bool, create it like so:
ethabi encode params -v bool true | xxd -r -p > constructor
For flipping the value, create it so:
ethabi encode function flipper.abi flip | xxd -r -p > flip
You’ll also need a yaml file with the following contents. Save it to flipper.yaml.
name: flipper version: '1.0' wasm: flipper.wasm inputs: - '12cd3c' outputs: - '12cd3c'
Now we have to start the Sawtooth Sabre environment. First clone the Sawtooth Sabre github repo and then run:
docker-compose -f docker-compose-installed.yaml up --build
Now enter the sabre-cli container:
docker exec -it sabre-cli bash
To create the flipper contract, run the following:
sabre cr --create flipper --owner $(cat /root/.sawtooth/keys/root.pub) --url http://rest-api:9708 sabre upload --filename flipper.yaml --url http://rest-api:9708 sabre ns --create 12cd3c --url http://rest-api:9708 --owner $(cat /root/.sawtooth/keys/root.pub) sabre perm 12cd3c flipper --read --write --url http://rest-api:9708
To run the constructor, run:
sabre exec --contract flipper:1.0 --payload ./constructor --inputs 12cd3c --outputs 12cd3c --url http://rest-api:9708
Lastly, to run the flip function:
sabre exec --contract flipper:1.0 --payload ./flip --inputs 12cd3c --outputs 12cd3c --url http://rest-api:9708
For the Sawtooth target,
returning values from Solidity is not yet implemented, and neither is
revert(). If you
attempt to call a function which returns a value, it will fail.